Using GPG we can generate private and public keys which can be used to encrypt and decrypt files. Here, the private key should be kept confidential. Even if the public key is made available, the message cannot be decrypted.
Consider a person A wants to send a secret message to person B. B’s public key is known to A and A encrypts the message using this. However, this encrypted message can be decrypted only by B since B alone knows the private key.
Let’s see how to generate a key pair and thereby performing encryption and decryption.
Step 1: Key pair generation
$ gpg --gen-key gpg (GnuPG) 1.4.11; Copyright (C) 2010 Free Software Foundation, Inc. This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law. Please select what kind of key you want: (1) RSA and RSA (default) (2) DSA and Elgamal (3) DSA (sign only) (4) RSA (sign only) Your selection? 1 RSA keys may be between 1024 and 4096 bits long. What keysize do you want? (2048) 3000 Requested keysize is 3000 bits rounded up to 3008 bits Please specify how long the key should be valid. 0 = key does not expire <n> = key expires in n days <n>w = key expires in n weeks <n>m = key expires in n months <n>y = key expires in n years Key is valid for? (0) 5 Key expires at Wednesday 23 January 2013 07:01:08 PM IST Is this correct? (y/N) y You need a user ID to identify your key; the software constructs the user ID from the Real Name, Comment and Email Address in this form: "Heinrich Heine (Der Dichter) <email@example.com>" Real name: sowmya Email address: firstname.lastname@example.org Comment: This is my OS assignment You selected this USER-ID: "sowmya (This is my OS assignment) <email@example.com>" Change (N)ame, (C)omment, (E)mail or (O)kay/(Q)uit? O You need a Passphrase to protect your secret key.
The Passphrase that we provide is our private key.
We need to generate a lot of random bytes. It is a good idea to perform some other action (type on the keyboard, move the mouse, utilize the disks) during the prime generation; this gives the random number generator a better chance to gain enough entropy. .....+++++ .......+++++ We need to generate a lot of random bytes. It is a good idea to perform some other action (type on the keyboard, move the mouse, utilize the disks) during the prime generation; this gives the random number generator a better chance to gain enough entropy. Not enough random bytes available. Please do some other work to give the OS a chance to collect more entropy! (Need 171 more bytes) ...+++++ Not enough random bytes available. Please do some other work to give the OS a chance to collect more entropy! (Need 63 more bytes) .+++++ gpg: key 014D1F5E marked as ultimately trusted public and secret key created and signed. gpg: checking the trustdb gpg: 3 marginal(s) needed, 1 complete(s) needed, PGP trust model gpg: depth: 0 valid: 1 signed: 0 trust: 0-, 0q, 0n, 0m, 0f, 1u gpg: next trustdb check due at 2013-01-23 pub 3008R/014D1F5E 2013-01-18 [expires: 2013-01-23] Key fingerprint = 26AE 91CA E577 C4C4 F168 16D5 4A83 6C5D 014D 1F5E uid sowmya (This is my OS assignment) <firstname.lastname@example.org> sub 3008R/D39FA9A6 2013-01-18 [expires: 2013-01-23]
014D1F5E is our public key.
Step 2: Exporting the key
gpg --export email@example.com > sowmya-pub.gpg gpg --armor --export firstname.lastname@example.org > sowmya-pub-asc.gpg
Importing other’s public key
gpg --import FileName
Send encrypted message
gpg --recipient 'public_key' --armor --encrypt secret.txt
Decrypt the encrypted message
Consider a file ‘secret.txt’ which is encrypted as secret.txt.asc. To decrypt secret.txt.asc:
$ gpg --decrypt secret.txt.asc > secret.txt You need a passphrase to unlock the secret key for user: "sowmya (This is my OS assignment) <email@example.com>" 3008-bit RSA key, ID D39FA9A6, created 2013-01-18 (main key ID 014D1F5E) gpg: encrypted with 3008-bit RSA key, ID D39FA9A6, created 2013-01-18 "sowmya (This is my OS assignment) <firstname.lastname@example.org>"